Sunday, November 10, 2019

Culture and Disease Essay

Culture is a pattern of behavior and thinking learned, shaped and shared by Europeans and Americans. It is their growing and developing bank of knowledge, experiences, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, material objects and possessions gained through generations of individual group work (Williams 1976). Any discomfort, dysfunction, distress, social problems, and alterations of behavior for Europeans and Americans are considered a disease. It is a change that disrupts the normal function of the body. It is initially believed to be caused by curses, evil spirits, or night vapors. However, in the mid-19th century the discoveries and findings of scientific works by Louis Pasteur and Koch concluded microorganisms or germs are the pathogens of infectious diseases which usually gain entrance into the body. These are microorganisms that are able to infect a host and produce a disease (Miller 2003). Subsequent studies and researches improved the concepts of healthcare. In the 21st century, Western Science of Medicine means accuracy. It is the name of the trend. Its subject the human body is likened to an outstandingly complex machine that can be figured out, customized, renovated, and its health defined and described in strictly clinical terms. Medical experts called Physicians can identify and eliminate disease-causing or etiologic organisms that originate outside the body, Surgeons evolved to be incomparable experts in dealing with acute trauma and distress, and epidemiologist uncovers the factors that determine the frequency, distribution, and determinants of diseases in human populations. These factors include the characteristics of the pathogen, the susceptibility of human population resulting from overcrowding, lack of immunization, nutritional status, inadequate sanitation procedures, locations or reservoirs where pathogens lie in wait, and the various means by which infectious disease is transmitted. Ironically, resurgence of infectious disease such as tuberculosis occurred brought about by the emergence of another infectious disease HIV/AIDS (Burton 2004). The existence of epidemic and communicable diseases in specific areas were found to follow geographic patterns. Diseases like Poliomyelitis caused by over population infected Brazilian children population, and it also infected older age Scandinavian and Americans; cholera, yellow fever and dengue infected Indians in India as a result of poor sanitation; Plague brought about by rodents are cases in the Western United States of America, and in China, it is carried by rodents and fleas infecting Chinese. These findings were important concepts for public awareness to guide travelers and servicemen (Duffy 1953). Body Tuberculosis is a chronic mycobacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract characterized by fever, night sweats, weight loss, productive cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, coughing up blood and hoarseness. It may infect lymph nodes causing systemic disease like kidney disease, urinary bladder disease and bone disease (Burton 2004). The dynamics of infection follows the following pattern: Sources of Infection > Modes of entry > Mechanism of disease > Pattern of infection > Portals of exit. Mycobacterium tuberculosis a slow-growing, acid-fast, Gram-variable bacillus is an aerobic bacillus species capable of reproducing within 16-20 hours. It is the etiologic agent of the disease called tuberculosis (Burton 2004). Mycobacterium tuberculosis developed resistance to treatment drugs. It is the second leading killer of adults in the world, with more than 2 million TB-related deaths each year (Burton 2004). Ironically, one of the endemic diseases in the United States of America is this bacterial disease called tuberculosis. In 2004 Centers for Disease and Controls, Atlanta, GA reported 14, 517 tuberculosis cases. The resurgence of tuberculosis in the United States of America in the 1980’s through 1990’s primarily resulted from the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the multi-drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis (Burton 2004). Identification and recognition of the characteristics of the pathogen, the susceptibility of human population resulting from overcrowding, lack of immunization, nutritional status, inadequate sanitation procedures, locations or reservoirs, emigration and migration of men and animals, and stress makes people immunosuppressed resulting to infection, considering that pathogens may come primarily from infected humans, sometimes from primates, cattle and other infected mammals (Burton 2004) . There are various sources from which tuberculosis can be acquired and transmitted. It may be via airborne droplets produced by the infected organism during coughing, sneezing, even singing and prolonged direct contact with infected individuals ((Burton 2004). Prevention, Precautions, Sterilization, disinfection and Patient care would all involve airborne precautions (Burton 2004). In Clinical practice, disinfection and sterilization as well as laboratory procedures were employed being a necessity. Their scientific basis has been developed only during the past century. These important procedures are: Sterilization which is the destruction or complete removal by filtration of all forms of microorganisms including their spores; Disinfection is the destruction of many microorganisms but not usually bacterial spores; Antisepsis, is the destruction or inhibition of microorganisms in living tissues thereby limiting or preventing the harmful effect of infection; Static agent would inhibit the growth of bacteriostatic microorganisms; Bactericidal agent would kill the microorganisms; Sterilizers are chemicals which under controlled conditions kill spore-forming bacteria. These agents which perform the above functions were divided into physical agents and chemical agents. With these mechanisms, Epidemiologist and Social psychologist in the United States of America helped contribute to the study of health and to the interventions to improve people’s well-being and quality of life by promoting health and preventing illnesses. They identify psychological factors that might influence illness, and identify improved ways in which health care is delivered. This is also a form of proposition for the improvement of the health of the population by promoting healthy choices and preventing people from becoming ill. Psychologists are persuasive by appealing to fear for the negative health consequences, subsequently encouraging American families, peer and schooling young adolescents to change their health behaviors by redirecting their behavioral intentions. This is in line with the concept that the actions taken by people to safeguard their health are influenced by factors such as general health values, perceived susceptibility to illness, perceptions of illness severity, expectations of treatment success, self-efficacy, perceived barriers and benefits, and cues to action. Healthy habits that are currently recommended are vigorous regular exercise, quitting smoking, limiting alcohol intake, eating healthy foods, and getting enough sleep. Even so, considering the increased cultural mixing Of the United States of America, programs or lessons in scholastic trainings are incorporated as designed to increase intercultural communications as cultural patterns affect how people make sense of the many aspects of health care: the meanings that people give to health and illness, the causes of diseases, the means to prevent illnesses, appropriate cures, and the types of individuals most qualified to provide care and attempt to cure. In this context, magico-religious approach, holistic approach and biomedical approach are not set aside, but, the healthcare system of the United States of America is typically focused on the individual patient as the source of the medical problem in need of a cure. This is rather the biomedical approach adopted to address the issues of illness and wellness. It considers people health regardless of culture to be driven by biochemical forces. Wellness is achieved by understanding that the biochemical reaction is activated. Illness happens when a part of the normal human body metabolic activities is altered. Treatments are provided by Medical health practitioners like Doctors and Nurses, thus bringing back the normal course of bodily metabolic activities supportive of good health (Lustig 1996). In 1953 Dr. Louis H. Bauer of New York, USA as a secretary General of the World Medical Health Association outlined the major task to address medical care need from their time on, such as: 1) Rural community work to establish facilities and to encourage physicians participation; 2) provide medical care all depressed areas : 3) Extend public health coverage to depressed areas; 4) Evolve strategies to address care needs people with inborn disorders; 5) Provide insurance programs to people specially senior citizens and the disabled; 6) Eradicate graft and corruption in the Medical practice; 7) General public protection for regular Medical services; 8) Renew medical societies; and 9) Medical Health ethics education for the Medical Health practitioners (Perkins 1993). Conclusion With the advent of post-industrial age marked by the ubiquitous appearance and usages of television and the computer, supposedly a reliable indicator, most Americans should be healthy and wealthy. Being so, it could be enough to affect longevity positively, primarily through lifestyle choices, rather than lack of food or shelter and diseases (Lustig 1996). However, Studies revealed that even the introduction of Medicare in the United States, bringing the poor substantially at par with the rich in terms of health care and medical services did not eliminate or even markedly reduced the large differential mortality. In contrast, life expectancy in Japan is far above all the rest of the countries in the world. The life expectancy for males is 78 years while the life expectancy for females is 85 years, in spite of half the level of spending for healthcare than that of the United States of America amounting to around $2,000 per person, 7. 4 percent of GDP (Powell 1990). The technology used in the Japanese health care system is similar to that used in the United States of America, but, the flow of funds, the quantity and intensity of use is considerably different (Powell 1990). In Japan, all citizens are free to choose any physician and hospital. Physicians may be General Private Practitioner providing primary and secondary care, while Specialist works in hospitals. Hospitals may be large and public university hospitals with medical school, research facilities, and outpatient department for primary care while small time private practitioners have small facilities and less sophisticated treatments (Powell 1990). Knowing that tuberculosis is transmitted via airborne droplets produced by the infected organism during coughing, sneezing, even singing and prolonged direct contact with infected individuals, preventions and precautions are better than an ounce of medicine after infection. Reference Burton, G. and Engelkirk, P. (2004). Microbiology for Health Sciences. USA: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Lustig, M. and Koester, J. (1996). Intercultural Competence. 6th ed. USA: HarperCollins. Powell, M. and Anesaki, M. (1990). Health Care in Japan. New York: Routledge. Duffy, John. (1953). Epidemics in Colonial America. Perkins, James E. (1952). You and Tuberculosis.

Friday, November 8, 2019

The Rationale for the Serial Comma

The Rationale for the Serial Comma The Rationale for the Serial Comma The Rationale for the Serial Comma By Mark Nichol Do you employ a serial comma the final comma in a sentence such as â€Å"I bought one apple, two bananas, and three oranges†? If your work for or with a business or organization involves publishing content in print or online, that decision has been made (or should have been made) for you in a style guide, a manual to be followed in production of all the content published by that business or organization. If you determine a business or organization’s style, or you self-publish in print or online, the decision is up to you. In most journalistic print and online publications and in much other online content, the serial comma is omitted. (This omission is also common in British English.) However, in most books and in many other publications published in the United States, it is required. I strongly favor the serial comma. Why? In a sentence such as â€Å"I bought one apple, two bananas and three oranges,† no ambiguity exists. But in â€Å"I ordered ham and eggs, toast and jam and pie and ice cream,† the cavalcade of conjunctions gets confusing, and in contexts in which it’s not as clear which list items might be distinct and which might be linked, the absence of the final comma might require readers to reread the sentence to establish the organization. So, the solution in this case is to use a serial comma when confusion could arise. That means that no-serial-comma publications will print or post â€Å"I bought one apple, two bananas and three oranges† but â€Å"I ordered ham and eggs, toast and jam, and pie and ice cream.† The resulting obvious question is why not, for the sake of consistency, just insert a serial comma in all cases? Another complication is illustrated in this well-known hypothetical statement: â€Å"I dedicate this book to my parents, Ayn Rand and God.† Without the serial comma, the statement could be read as acknowledging four entities: two parents, an author, and a deity. But it could also refer to two parents, one of whom is an author and other of whom is a deity. Again, the presence of the serial comma eliminates the ambiguity. This issue may seem trivial, but the English language is constructed of myriad trivialities that combine into an imperfect system but one that has supported the world’s predominant language. (Yes, twice as many people speak Mandarin as English, but my reference point is global significance.) Commas are an abundant resource, and you can pull any ordinary one out of your comma bucket to serve as a serial comma. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Punctuation category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:70 Idioms with Heart50 Idioms About Roads and Paths50 Plain-Language Substitutions for Wordy Phrases

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Isp Summary Essays

Isp Summary Essays Isp Summary Essay Isp Summary Essay ISP Summary We chose to do our integrated study plan project on nature as the season change. We felt this topic was appropriate because the children seemed really interested in the outdoors at the beginning of the semester. We split our main topic into three parts- animals, trees, and weather. I was in charge of the trees and implemented six different activities about trees throughout the semester. My outcomes for each activity were met. For my Literacy activity I read the book Tree Is Nice by Janice May Udry , after reading the book the children were able to learn why is the tree is important in our life. For the Math lesson plan the children were able to match trees with some shapes. For the Science lesson the children learn about animals live inside the tree. For the Social Studies lesson plan the children learn about how the looks like in different seasons, and they were able to match the right tree with the right season. For the Art lesson plan children were able to identify the changing color of the leaves during the seasons, and they paint their own leaves. And for the physical lesson plan the children pretend to be trees and move like when the wind hit the tree, freeze when the snow is falling, and fall down like the leaves fall from the tree in the fall. The best part was that the children were engaged in the activities and they had fun. And because this is my first time working with children, I sometimes feel nervous, but I got over it when time was past. For the next semester I need to improve my lesson plans and do it better than I did. About the children I was surprised that they treat each other by respect, and taking care of each other, and they have a good relationship with us. Dani and Mary had a great part in my 100 hour student teaching, and they helped and watched us very carefully during their teaching, and their feedback was really helpful. I will advise the next student teacher to be so nervous just take it easy the children will love you because children are angels. And enjoy your time with the children.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

The importance of car designing Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The importance of car designing - Case Study Example The key problem underlying the dilemma that is facing the company is the possibility of being sued for not assuring the quality of its product, which subsequently led to the death of one of the users and the serious injury of two others in the accident. The stakeholders, in this case scenario, the CEO (Chief Executive Officer), owner of company, the mangers, Mr. I. M. Good, the Vice President of Car Engineering, and Mrs. Lovely. All these stakeholders are responsible for all the events leading to the accident that caused the death of the customer and the injury of her or his young boy. This means that a decision processes was missed or ignorantly assumed at a certain point through the production stage of the car, Zinger. I believe the utmost and dire sole responsibility of the company is to keep the customers satisfied and ensure their safety while using the product. All the information about the flaws of the car was kept under secrecy due to the need to earn revenue fast due to the increased competition kin the market. The stakeholders in the firm have a great social responsibility of maintain the company’s image regarding their professionalism and provision of quality products in the market. Their esteemed customers need to be well informed about the goods they use and be cautioned on any flaws that might hurt them physically. They should make this resolution even if the decision making would mean the recalling back of all the flawed cars from the car dealerships around the whole market. This will go a long way in ensuring and restoring their clients trust in the product. Otherwise, subsequent accidents would see the firm receiving multiple law suits for their flawed products, thus they would lose their esteemed clients, subsequently resulting to a lot of money spent in settling cases. The company should maintain a positive image with their clients. Advisable, the one ethical decision to be made would be to halt the selling of the Zinger car till a fur ther time after improvisation and repairs on the flaws. The sole and most viable decision that company should make is to halt the production of the car and work on its improvisation to prevent any further accidents that have led to fatalities. One would consider it moral to keep clients informed about the goods they use. They should do this even if it means that this will reduce their profit margin over some period of time. Earning customer trust is essential in maintaining a client base for future of the company. The effective management of the control process supports the system for the production of quality goods. The top managers in the organization, that is the CEO and the other board of governors and stakeholders need to be informed all the tasks carried out in the company. Essential information like the assumption made for the Zinger car should not have been ignored since the wrong decision made not to convey information appropriately led to the death of an individual. The ha stiness for the firm to seek approval of the car’s introduction to the market might cause a bad reputation for the company due to the faults that were not addressed during the production stage. The consequences of all these decisions are for the betterment of the firm’s reputation on the market. Well, if word gets out to its competitors about this flaw, then this would mean that their competitive edge is doomed since their rivals in the market would use this information for marketing and promotional market share competition. If they lost customers their profit margins might fall to even losses. Ultimately this leads to company fallout due to negligence of prior events that would have been prevented before product launch. Closing from

Friday, November 1, 2019

Effect of foreign direct investment in the banking sector on the Research Proposal

Effect of foreign direct investment in the banking sector on the Libyan banking industry - Research Proposal Example n investor can â€Å"alter the way of doing business† for the new company including change of name, nature of doing business or the products on offer (Froot26-27). According to Barclay, firms mostly multinationals engage in Foreign Direct Investment with the aim of â€Å"increasing profitability and also increasing its global presence† (101). It is also aimed at minimising risk that is inherent in international business operations. A firm that engages in FDI stands a better chance of surviving in turbulent economic times if it operates in more than one market. A firm may also engage in FDI to â€Å"check the expansion of a local competitor into a new market† (Barclay 77). The aim is to prevent the local competitor from gaining a foothold in a foreign market and then using its newly acquired status and resources to destabilize the local market. Martinez says that Libya is a country in the African continent with a â€Å"fairly complicated history† (81). It has evolved from decades of misrule, revolutions among other national evils. It has for a long time been accused of sponsoring terrorist activities, and was listed among the axis of evil by the American government. Libya was put under the microscope by the United Nations after it was accused of sheltering the suspects accused of the Lockerbie bombing. Consequently it was put under UN sanctions and this severely affected its economy. Today Libya is one of the â€Å"emerging economic giants in Africa courtesy of its abundant oil resources† (Ham 35). It has also normalised its relations with the west and the UN lifted its economic sanctions after the Arab state complied with the set demands. Libya has a population of around 6 million people and a GDP of $21 billion. It has carried out extensive private and public sector reforms to encourage foreign investors so as to spur the local economy. â€Å"The banking industry in Libya is fairly complicated† (Collard 71-72). Due to the embargo that was put by the UN and other

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Research methods and study skills Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Research methods and study skills - Coursework Example The study relates the area of urbanisation with social relations at community level by focusing on social indicators associated with housing. The analysis dwelt in the pace of historical development in measuring the diversity house age in predicting the measurement of the relations associated with neighbourly social based on multilevel framework. The researcher used neighbourhood built and individual’s socio-demographic data as the controls to validate the finding (king, 2013). The meta-analysis study by Ewing and Cervero (2010) is built on the realisation that built environment and the use of automobiles are associated in many ways. For instance, the problems associated with climate change, dependence on oil, congestion within the cities, and sprawl associates with the urban designs and the planning, which prompts the locations and the states to use the concepts of built environment to bring sanity to the automobile use. The building of roads has not been in tandem with the demand of the travel. To achieve the objective of the study, the researchers determined the elasticity by computing the values for the individual studies selected and later pooled to generate the weighted average. The study found that variables associated to travel were inelastic when assessed from the built environment perspective (Ewing and Cervero, 2010). The method adopted by King to acquire the data for the study was survey. The source of the data was the Chicago community adult-health studies. The data obtained for this study involved respondents characteristics of the neighbourhood in relation to their physical and social status, the psychosocial and socioeconomic status. The most important factor that was put into consideration is the fact that the Chicago community adult health data has a clustered sampling framework. The framework is essential for facilitating the human development project in the entire Chicago neighbourhood. This means that getting the respondents

Monday, October 28, 2019

The 1906 landslide victory Essay Example for Free

The 1906 landslide victory Essay To what extent is it fair to conclude that it was Conservative/Unionist failings that led to the 1906 landslide victory? Within the last 20 years being dominated by the conservative party, perhaps it is possible to assume that soon there would be a reverse in conservative fortunes. This could come from a liberal comeback or another party finding their feet in parliament. As we know it was the Liberals aiming their ascendancy again to win a landslide victory in 1906. However, external factors cannot entirely be attributed to the conservative downfall as it came in a landslide defeat. In answering this question I will look at the inefficiencies and limitations of the conservative party, whilst also considering the actions and decisions of the other parties. It is fair to say that the conservatives would have found it difficult to gain any more votes than they already had received form previous elections, and that their goals were mainly consolidation of their position. This landslide in 1906 shows that the conservative objections were failed to be adhered to. Therefore in answering this question the first aspect to look at is the conservative parties own limitations. Many of the problems that the conservatives had to face were them always seeming to have an ineffectual leader, Arthur Balfour. At first it would to be believed that he might become a good leader as he had brains, courage, vision and that he was also a well respected man in the commons. Balfour disliked democracies like his uncle Salisbury, yet in that he never took it seriously. Balfour became too cerebral and too uninvolved, and in his eyes, the Tories were an instrument for solving the nations problems. He saw that Britain was in a state of decline on the international front, with the economic growth saturating alongside productivity. Thus, defense of the empire was required in order to make Britain more competitive and Chamberlain was particularly devoted tot this. It has to be said that it was the combination of Chamberlains response and Balfour letting him enact his response that became a major reason behind the conservative defeat in the 1906 elections. The conservatives foreign policy was also very poor, as it was the Liberals in 1886 with the problems involving Irish home rule. Between the two men, the party collapsed from Salisburys secure and dominant party, to eventually ruins. Balfour was also costly about reform, and it was the poorly orchestrated social reform that seemed to lead to the dissatisfaction of certain social groups that had been formally enlightened by the conservatives. An example of this is the 1902 Education Act, which eventually ended up in a political disaster. In order to achieve national greatness and efficiency it was believed at the time that it was education that held the key, and that if education didnt become a prominent feature of party policies Britain would fall behind other major countries. Therefore no wonder that Balfour and Devonshire both co-operated to forward the education act of 1902. Embitterment reached its peaks in the summer of 1906 with Dr. Clifford, who started upon orchestrating a campaign against education reform. This became the beginning of the non-conformist revolt. Other reforms agitated the non-conformists groups, two years later with the enactment of the 1904 Licensing Act, which made provision for closure of republic houses but also compensated those who had lost trade by a levy on those remaining. With Balfours inability to reform he had two major instances in the public spotlight, which completely tarnished the partys reputation with hem showing complete insensitivity towards the public opinion. Balfour mistake on the domestic front with him totally comprehending the trade unions agitation that arose form a series of judgments in the late 1890s (Taff Vale). In contrast with Disraeli in the 1870s he made no effort to halt the pressure groups. Balfours main concerns were with the foreign policy and maintaining of the empire, which in effect would enhance Britains position. Another major mistake that Balfour made was the damage from the Boer War in South Africa. Alfred Miller concerned about the war asked for the importation of Chinese workers, these workers would work in the gold mines of the Rand. Initially Chamberlain who obviously recognized the importance of public opinion vetoed the request, however the board sanctioned the request later in 1903. This proved to be a mistake with a wave of protest all over Britain, mainly die to the people becoming more aware of human rights. The outcry came form the conscience as the Chinese workers had to work in poor conditions in the most small and dangerous areas. Balfour could have rejected the idea, however to him the plan was effective and practical. On the 15th May 1903, Birmingham, Chamberlain declared his faith in imperial preference as he proposed to abandon free trade which had become a way of British life for fifty years. He believed that a system of duties would tie the overall empire together, raise revenue for social reform and protect British industry. The war on the Tariffs had started with Chamberlain seeing this move a way of solving the nations problems whilst giving him individual gains, such as him being in the spotlight after fading with the climax of the Boer War. In July 1903 an outraged group of unionists began to set a Free Food League, and thus Balfour faced an extremely dangerous position. Bitter quarrels were beginning to form between those who endorsed free trade and those who were tariff reformers. Another massive blow to the conservative party under the controversies of tariff reform was the loss of Winston Churchill, who publicly showed the necks of the liberals, tariff reform became a rallying cry for conservatives and an electoral liability. The protection of men and women meant less food for the people, whilst the fre trade stood for prosperity and cheap food. Chamberlains reform, was admittedly unfortunate to coincide with economic revival, yet this fear of expensive food created a retaliation in the country and I believe this was the major mistake made by the party, which ultimately produced a swing against them of devastating proportion in what is know seen as the landslide victory of 1906. Chamberlain and Balfour both seemed to have the inabilities to appease all social groups and this was made worse with their ineffective social reform, inability to understand public opinion and their constant focus upon solving the nations problem. This all contributed to the declining conservative support. The views that I have just made are the conservatives mistakes that led to the landslide victory, yet the Liberal party after Gladstone was undertaking changes. These changes were apparent in their organization and ideology and thus by the early 1900s it was ready again to challenge the conservatives through the electoral system. The year 1902 was a decisive year for the liberals fortunes. Initially, the liberals looked set to divide further into factions as Roseberys ascendancy had culminated in him leading a pressure group within the party as a president of the new liberal league. The group name was Schism which included the prominent figures such as Grey, Fowler and Asquith. The group however began to fade away. The education Act set up by the conservatives gave the Liberals a chance to reform and unite and rally to the non-conformist cause. The Liberal politicians now had something to pick up on, and hostility to rate support fir church schools and the abolition of the non-conformist dominated school boards was a perfect issue. By-elections immediately swung against the Tories, as the Liberals won in Bury and Leeds by July. In 1903 Chamberlain had begun his infamous tariff reform campaign and presented the Liberals with an absolutely perfect issue in which they could protest against. The Liberal propaganda, machine had got in motion with the main liberal highlight big Liberal Loaf against the small Tory loaf. Asquith began to emerge as a leading protagonist in the issue, and was a thorn in Chamberlains side. Through the campaign the liberals were winning back votes form the working class as the liberals played upon the fact that the tariffs were being enacted at the expense of the masses who have to pay for them. This then led to more places falling under the Liberal grasp like Lancashire. Even new support groups were being encouraged, as the National League of Young Liberals was set up in 1903 and had 300 branches by 1906. Gladstones achievements as an organizer meant a fall in the number of unionist candidates. The splitting of the progressive vote had clearly rebounded to the unionist advantage, highlighted in the unionist dominance at Barnard castle in 1903. The eventual agreement was signed in September 1903 with the main gist being that Labour would get a free run in some forty to fifty unionist seats in return for backing the Liberals elsewhere. The results of the 1906 elections were paramount to the pact made by the two parties, as the benefits affected both. Indeed the LRC and the Liberals were able to concentrate upon capitalizing on the new upshot of working class consciousness, which was shown in essence at the retaliation against the war fought for the rich capitalists of the Rand, the money making schemes of Chamberlain, the contemptuous nature against Labour with the enslavement of Chinese workers and the refusal to reverse the Taff Vale judgment. The reform issue was the final fault of the conservatives for the Liberals to pose the question. The 1906 elections was a disaster for Unionists whereas the liberals consolidate their strongholds whilst gaining in Lancashire, London and the southeast. In conclusion I believe that it was mainly due to the conservative failings that led to the 1906 landslide elections. The Tory party was headed by two main figures, Balfour and Chamberlain who brought the party to ruins preceding the rise in liberal fortunes headed by Salisbury. The liberal propaganda machine helped to put the conservatives to rest whilst they continued their uprising. The Liberal united around the conservative failings and this proved to be a force for both non-conformity and the working class.